Jun 01, 2002· The study investigated the formation of chlorine (Cl) sites in CAbased sorbents as well as their role and reactivity in the absorption of Hg. HClexposed calcium sulfate dihydrate (gypsum) exhibited a superior Hg sorption capability. Crystalline water molecules on the surface of the gypsum were confirmed to contribute indirectly to Hg uptake.
Radium Sulfate Scale Deposition. Also, the level of radium sulfate was so high that when the washer drum was being removed not one person was allowed to work on it for more than 8 hours a day. It is estimated that 250 g of barium sulfate scale contained 1/10 of the allowable 8 hour radiation exposure20.
5. A process for the removal of calcium sulfate scale from heat exchange surfaces which comprises flowing over the scale an aqueous solution of sodium chloride of 5% to 20% strength by weight, at a temperature below 140 F., until the scale is dissolved. ' '6.
The ideal ion exchange solution for sulfatereduction is one that combines both anionic and cationic resins. In that case, the process would work as follows: • Feed water is passed through a series of contactors containing cation exchange resin to remove calcium and magnesium
May 27, 2015· Calcium sulfate scalant Silica scale is especially difficult to remove from the membrane surface. In the presence of aluminum or iron, silica forms insoluble aluminum and iron silicates; therefore, if a silica scaling potential exists, aluminum and iron must be removed from the feedwater.
o sulfate removal to enhance oil recovery o steam flood and SAGD o polymer flood o low salinity waterflood to allow recycling of hydraulic fracture flow back o salt sensitive polymers to allow surface discharge o Coal Seam Gas (Coal Bed Methane) water disposal Why Desalination is used in the OG Industry Next several slides show how
system include calcium carbonate, calcium phosphate, calcium sulfate, collo idal silica, metal silicates, etc. However, deposition of BaSO 4 and SrSO 4 on the RO membrane surface is also observed due to incompatibility of sea water containing high sulfate with barium and strontium rich formation water. The long term success of an RO system
speciﬁc resin make these technologies uneconomical, removal by conventional biological treatment and chemical coagulation with lime, ferrous, or aluminum salts has proved to be ineffective . Ionexchange processes with strong base anionexchange resins are
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Novel Treatment Technologies for Desalination and Selective Ion Removal Eagle Ford Center for Research, Education and Outreach City of Cotulla, Texas November 15, 2013 Lucy Mar Camacho, Department of Environmental Engineering Texas AM University Kingsville
Sodium carbonate treatment was used to precipitate calcium as calcium carbonate to prevent the formation of calcium sulfate. The driving force for the formation of calcium carbonate was the maintenance of a high concentration of carbonate ion in the boiler water. Even where this was accomplished, major scaling by calcium carbonate was common.
The structural properties of these sorbents (, spe by coalfired power plants and boilers of industrial processes. cific surface area and porosity) are believed to play an important For example, dry FGD processes use calciumbased sorbents, role in SO2 capture.
The highest ranked MST sulfate removal technology is aluminum trihydroxide and lime at pH to form and precipitate the sulfate ionbased mineral ettringite. This reaction can reduce sulfate ion levels to < 50 mg/L, and appears attractive from a cost and operability perspective. Calcium ion is also removed.
In the process, the fermentation broth is treated with sulfuric acid to precipitate the calcium sulfate or gypsum, which is filtered. The filtrate containing free organic acid is evaporated to obtain the pure LA (Fig. 1). The steps of chemical reactions involved are shown below (Eqs. 1 through 3). Production of lactic acid; C 6 H 12 O 6 2CH 3 CHOHCOOH (1)
Apr 20, 2017· Nanofiltration membranes are capable of removing larger divalent ions such as calcium sulfate, while allowing smaller monovalent ions such as sodium chloride to pass through. How can SAMCO help? SAMCO has over 40 years' experience customdesigning and manufacturing RO/NF systems for a range of industries and solutions, so please feel free to reach out to us with your .
AQUACHEM TECHNOLOGIES. ¨ Excellent control of various scale forming salts such as Calcium Carbonate, Calcium Sulfate, Barium Strontium Sulfate, Silica, Iron, Manganese Aluminum oxides hydroxides, Phosphates and Suspended particles.